We thank you for your interest in the Kewaunee Academy of Fine Art where our mission is to train and prepare students for a career in contemporary representational painting.
June brought forth our first graduates who have completed the rigorous and demanding curriculum designed and implemented by Artistic Director, Craig Blietz and his able staff of instructors.
All from Wisconsin, they are: Pam Clausen, Kewaunee, Karen Cook, Sister Bay, Molly Johnson, Denmark, Linda Van Beek, Green Bay, Phyllis Verhyen, Greenleaf, and Mark Zelten, Green Bay. We are very proud of this group as they pursue careers as professional artists.
The Kewaunee Academy of Fine Art is founded on the principle of offering interested students a program and environment in which they can learn, practice and develop their skills.
The Academy strives for excellence by demanding the best from its students and teaching staff and at the same time fosters a spirit of creativity grounded in discipline.
The cinema is perhaps one of the best tools to account for the life of artists or the history of works that, over time, have been constituted as pillars for the development of current art. putlocker Films that delve into the specific aspects of a style, artistic movement or the life of an artist are presented as the perfect material to approach fascinating stories and open the door to the understanding and enjoyment of art. movie4k made a selection of five films about art and artists that are definitely worth seeing. The idea of this cinematographic route is to approach a series of periods, starting from the cave paintings in the cave of Chauvet, until arriving at the contemporary time; Going through the first decades of the twentieth century in Mexico and the late seventies in New York.
CAVE OF FORGOTTEN DREAMS
Cave of Forgotten Dreams is a documentary made by Werner Herzog in 2010. Those familiar with the style of the German director will know that the film is loaded with a drama, which, this time is mainly due to the choice of music and Narrative that accompany it. For less than an hour and a half, Herzog enters the cave of Chauvet in Ardeche, France, to film the oldest rock paintings discovered so far. In addition, he conducts a series of interviews with a team of archaeologists, art historians and paleontologists who since 1994 have studied the structure of the cave, bones found and patterns of drawings on rock formations.
Despite the difficult conditions Herzog faces at the time of recording, images of rock paintings and stalactite formations are impressive. The team plays with the lights to try to understand how the drawings were viewed in the light of the torches, which produces a beautiful result; A movement in the figures that alludes to a stampede and for a moment gives life to the inanimate. Cave of Forgotten Dreams is a valuable documentary, not only because it evidences pictorial expressions that were made without any aesthetic preconception billions of years ago, but also because it shows the importance that the image has had for the development of society since the origin of times.
Understanding the relationship that the first men had with the images is difficult task, nevertheless, the paintings evidence the magical character attributed to them and that still they possess today. Undoubtedly, this is one of those documentaries that opens the door to the discussion on whether cave drawings are the first artistic expression to exist. In this effect, it is worth seeing and constructing an opinion based on the nature of the paintings, because as we ignore the beginning of the language, we also ignore what was the art, and only a real approach to the images and their Function, at the same time as the studies that have allowed to understand how they were made and what was its objective, can clarify one of the questions that have marked the History of the Art from its beginning until today.
Frida is a film directed by Julie Taymor and Miramax Films, produced by companies VentanaRosa and Lion Gate Films in 2002. This drama that for two hours tells the life of one of the most important Mexican painters of the twentieth century: Frida Kahlo , Focuses mainly on the artist’s strength in the face of her accident and her relationship with Diego Rivera, one of the most outstanding muralists of the beginning of the last century. The story is based on the book that the American historian Hayden Herrera wrote about the life of Frida, evidenced in the importance that is given to the biographical details about her sentimental life, the consequences of the incident that left her invalid and The development of his artistic work.
One of the most interesting and beautiful elements of the film, beyond the window that opens to the knowledge of the life of the artist, is the way in which the paintings come alive and merge with the scenes of reality; It could be said that in a sort of attempt to bring the essence of surrealism to the big screen. The vibrant colors and texture of the pigments become real through stop-motion and blend with the dreams that the protagonist has, and from which derive their works. This makes the film oscillate between reality and illusion, which is, finally, the strongest feature of Kahlo’s work.
Without a doubt, Frida is a film that sows a seed of interest regarding the development of Mexican art in the first decades of the twentieth century, both by the art of Kahlo and that of her husband Diego Rivera. In the same way, it shows the importance of art during the Zapatista revolution and the art-political relationship, which still crosses the manifestations of contemporary art, not only in Latin America but worldwide. Finally, the film gives a significant weight to the influence that the Mexican culture and the indigenismo had in the work of Frida without falling in clichés, at the same time that it appreciates the humanistic ideas that were conceived in the time and the opinion of the woman , However controversial it may be.
Basquiat is a film directed by Julian Schnabel in 1996. The 108-minute drama focuses on the life of the American artist Jean-Michelle Basquiat, who went from living on the street and painting graffiti under the pseudonym of SAMO, to become One of the most important neo-expressionist painters of the 1980s. The atmosphere of the film accounts for the post-punk period in New York when street art began to establish itself as a form of expression accepted by the elites, Therefore, it began to be exhibited in the important galleries of the city. Schnabel brings the viewer to an underground world in which painters and musicians gathered in places such as the Mudd Club and cultural spaces in Soho,
The art of Basquiat draws on elements of post-war expressionism in the United States, and, moreover, has a strong influence from its Haitian and Puerto Rican roots. This undoubtedly opens a question about the place of the black artist in the American society of the time, because as his fame grew, he had to face comments and criticisms regarding his race that seemed to condition the Form in which his art was interpreted. That said, Basquiat is a film worth seeing, not only for its biographical approach but also for the inclusion of scenarios, characters and music that bring the observer closer to the New York of the 80’s. However, it must be borne in mind that Can become a bit harsh, since as the artist advances in the scale of social recognition,
EXIT THROUGH THE GIFT SHOP
Exit Through the Gift Shop is a documentary directed by English artist Banksy in 2010. For just under an hour and a half, the viewer delves into the life of Thierry Guetta, a Frenchman living in Los Angeles, who has a Obsession with videos and home movies. Guetta, for his fortune, turns out to be the cousin of one of the world’s most recognized street performers: Invader, who decides to take him with him while taking part in the streets of France with his renowned mosaics of pixels. After a while and meeting other renowned graffiti artists such as Shepard Fairey, Guetta becomes obsessed with expressions of street art and says she wants to make a documentary about street art for the sole purpose of meeting Banksy.
The story takes an unexpected turn when Banksy decides to get behind cameras and asks Guetta to make art, who, without any objection, plans a show of great magnitude under the pseudonym of Mr. Brainwash. It is here that the most sensitive, and above all those who have received an artistic education, may become indignant. Guetta or Mr. Brainwash, whatever you want to call it, manages to sell all his pieces at exorbitant prices and also obtains an exclusive in the LA Weekly. This, no doubt, opens the discussion around the limits of art: what is art, what is not, and why? In the same way, it shows the functioning of the market of contemporary art, which sometimes moves due to the artist’s name and not to the quality of its production. In this effect,
Exit Through the Gift Shop is a movie worth seeing if you read between the lines, because what really matters is beyond the literal. However, it is also significant if his interests include graffiti and expressions of street art, as he shows the public how the beginnings of this practice that has been gaining strength with the passage of the years and which were its first exponents. Thus, from the hand of greats like Invader, Ron English, Shepard Fairey and even Banksy, it is possible to understand how it was operated when intervening a public space when this action was completely illegal and much more difficult than it is now .
AI WEIWEI: NEVER SORRY
Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry is a documentary about the Chinese artist Ai Weiwei, directed by Alison Klayman in 2012. For an hour and a half, the artist, as protagonist, explains the reasons why he decided to become a political activist taking art As a means to express their ideas. If it were possible to define the film with a word, it would certainly be: strong, as it confronts the viewer with images that show the abuse of power by the police in China as well as the corruption of the system. The question that crosses the script is: what happens when the border between art and politics disappears completely ?, especially in a country where the government supports the violence against those who do not agree with its regime. At the end of the documentary the viewer gets his answer, which,
This documentary contains material worth seeing, plus if you are interested in the work of Ai Weiwei, who, in addition to guarding the rights of his countrymen, is also one of the most recognized Chinese artists worldwide. His work questions culture and its evolution, as well as the social policies of his country, using, in most cases, repetition as a weapon to deprive of meaning to things. As part of his production, Ai Weiwei carries out a series of actions, always accompanied by volunteers who support his cause, with the aim of unmasking the Chinese government, which have not deprived him of being invited to a series of biennials and exhibitions in institutions Such as the Tate Gallery in London, the Haus der Kunst in Munich or the Brooklyn Museum in New York. Nevertheless,
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What I seek is not reality or unreality, but the unconscious …”
The act of removing the cinematic scene from what is considered art is like trying to separate life from death. A useless action that would demean the seventh art and all artistic disciplines together. At the time, cinema was the direct descendant of photography and as such had to be linked to the painting of which, after all, it was distant family. Nowadays the performing arts seem so alien to the pictorial ones that we tend to separate them and to emphasize some with respect to others but there is a reality that goes beyond all subjective valuation: we are children of the cinema. No matter how many books we read or write, how many paintings we believe because we will always think of the thousand and one images seen in the cinema when we do.
The inspiring art in 8 films about essential painters
If you’ve started studying Fine Arts, chances are you’ve already Watch some of the feature xmovies8 films that follow or you may be able to add others that are not on this list. In any case the objective of this article is so easy to guess that simply must be added: Live the art as we live it in Artelista!
The Austrian painter is one of the most famous in Europe and possibly the main attraction of the Belvedere Museum (Vienna) . Based on the life of the artist, this feature film stars the immense John Malkovich in the role of the controversial artist. The film is endowed with an obsessive personality and obsessed with the female body. Gustav Klimt lived a relatively comfortable life in spite of his character, which was what condemned him without having died yet.
Salma Hayek had already carved out a film career when she decided to star in Frida . The feature film ranges from the years of Frida Kahlo’s institute to the last moments of her life, although obvious interesting passages she lived with Chavela Vargas. Hollywood stuff. The surrealist painter was the first to discover the benefits that art has when suffering from physical illness, but not by the elimination of external pain, but by the anesthetic power of emotional suffering. Today you can visit the Frida Kahlo House Museum in Mexico City and, in addition,
Unlike the previous two feature films, Renoir is not a film designed to entertain. Neither was born to have a fast paced Hollywood style. He does not even tell the story of the great years of the great Impressionist, but what he enters is the decline of genius. However, although the director marks slow times and is recreated in the aesthetic aspect, Renoir is perceived as an example of love for art to levels that grateful masochism (Auguste Renoir suffered arthritis throughout his life and pains in His last years were unbearable but he continued painting until he could not more).
4. The Picasso Band
In 1911, the Mona Lisa was stolen from the Louvre Museum. The band of foreign thieves who took the lady of Da Vinci , in theory, had been led by the painter Pablo Picasso. It was never proven but that did not save Picasso from having to spend the night in the dungeon. Yet it is an interesting contribution that shows another of the faces of art; Its value in the market and the numerous robberies that have been perpetrated throughout the contemporary history of great masterpieces. There are other recent couchtuner films such as La Banda de Picasso (2012) that show the intrigues that art awakens as it happens in the case of the feature film Trance by Danny Boyle .
5. Big Eyes
This film is not only attractive from a cinematographic point of view since it is directed by Tim Burton and promises, at least, entertainment. There is much more. It shows one of the most famous cases of usurpation of artistic identity in the history of the twentieth century. The story of the famous painter Margaret Keane is that of many women who throughout history had to hide in a male figure to be taken into account. This artist who currently has one of the most millionaire heritage of all the painters of the twentieth century was at the time noneuneada because his ex-husband Walter Keane appropriated the authorship of his work for decades. In some ways,
6. Arts and Crafts
This documentary recommendation I saw so long ago that I barely remember the details but the central theme revolves around the figure of William Morris and his disciples. They created the artistic tendency Arts and Crafts in century XIX and, at present, their paintings continue in force. The documentary deals with the techniques used as well as the vicissitudes that lead to wanting to lead a life of artist (commissioned).
If there is a painter who gave the art more than he got in return, that was Amedeo Modigliani. His paintings , full of messages and visual rhetoric, made him a representative of the artist’s bohemian life at the turn of the century, while his magnetic (and problematic) personality earned him as much hatred as passion. The twentieth century did not know until very recently the oasis of his work in the middle of the boom of Impressionism, Cubism and Expressionism. The truth is that Modigliani was the example of an artist who lives his life as he paints his work.
8. The girl in the pearl
Who does not know one of the most famous Dutch painters of all time? Or, rather, who has not seen a cheap replica of his most famous painting, La Joven de la Perla in a doctor’s office or in a bookstore? Surely you’ve come to mind, right? In this film you can learn more about the story behind the painting.
Check out the Artelista blog and the most famous artists in history!
Violinist Enrique José Jiménez Gómez paid tribute yesterday to three Galician violinists – Antonio Fernández Bordas, Andrés Gaos Berea and Manuel Quiroga Losada – in his speech at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts Galician as an academic elector of the Music section.
In his speech, he emphasized the contribution of the three to music in Galicia. Those Galician violinists “formed a trilogy of maximum value with unforgettable and immortal repercussions,” said the new member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts Galician, who left the interpretation Musical to devote to medicine.
Doctor in Medicine and Surgery, with specialty in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jiménez serves as professor of History of Medical Science at Mid-Atlantic OBGYN andUSC.
In his speech he emphasized that Gaos, born in A Coruña (1874-1959), was a “child prodigy” with a long history in several musical fields, which led him to lead the Lamoureux orchestra in the Gaveau room of Paris with his own compositions Since his works were interpreted in different points of Spain and Argentina.
Antonio Fernández Bordas, born in Ourense (1870-1950) also emphasized his “identical qualities as a child prodigy” that led him to direct the Conservatory of Madrid.
Finally, he praised the figure of the Pontevedrés Manuel Quiroga Losada (1892-1961), who described it as “an unrepeatable figure” and “a real luxury for Galicia that in Paris won all the prizes”. He added that Quiroga later embarked for the United States, where he became “one of the most acclaimed violinists of the new generation”.
Home remedies are very popularized to get today, as it has no side effects on people. With some simple ingredients available in the home it will be fairly easy to remove blackheads from your skin. Let’s take a look at some of the home remedies for blackhead removal that eradicate blackheads completely from your nose and other parts of the face.
Blackheads are hard germinated elements that form on the skin, due to various reasons. People with a tendency to have acne and pimples are very prone to blackheads on the skin layer. So, if it’s going to be pimples, check out the corners of your nose and chin. Did you see any kind of thick furry substance that is having the hard feeling? Your answer is yes, it is actually affected with blackheads. You should find out the actual cause of it and make use of the appropriate resources.
Girls prefer a completely clear skin and when they find any kind of pimple, pimple, acne or blackheads, they start to panic. Other problems are easily treated within a day or two but if you encounter blackheads in your nose or skin then they become very irritating. I know how annoying black dots are !!! The blackheads make their skin.Blackheads look like skin is formed when the pores of the skin are blocked and the dirt inside the pores is oxidized with the air that turns it into the black head. Here are some simple solutions to eliminate blackheads naturally using the little-known secret ingredients of your kitchen and general secrets. It’s just squeezing and crushing !!!
Use exfoliating at least once a week to exfoliate pimples. Sunita Pindi Scrub is an amazing one that does wonders to get rid of pimples naturally with all simple to wash and leaves a smooth skin. Make sure the oil massage the face before using Sunni Pindi to allow the powder to flow easily to your skin. In is allergic or do not have time to massage oil, use an exfoliant of your choice and be sure to hydrate the Skin after washing to prevent dryness of the skin. Honey Honey packed with anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties can help eliminate blackheads from everything in a natural way.
All you need to do is, take a spoon full of sticky honey in which the palms and massage on the face for 3-4 minutes. The stickiness in honey updates the blackheads and removes the pores of the skin and prevents the remains of the pores from turning black quickly. Rinse face with warm water. Egg white This is another method that many people follow to get rid of pimples. All you need to do is apply a layer of egg white on the face and let it dry. Alternatively, apply a second layer of egg white to the skin followed by a third layer of egg white spread over black spots prone area be the nose, chin, forehead or dried cheeks.After feels tight.
Take a damp cloth and rub in the prone area to the black head carefully and see the results. The egg white tends to clean the pores and removes dirt and dust are introduced into the pores finally removing the black spots from your skin all naturally.
Use a steam facial once every two weeks to help open the pores and let them peel off. Focus on the steam region of the black spots. Or you can even simply take a steam bath or hot water bath and then use the towel to remove all black spots naturally with gentle rubbing. Make sure the hot water is not too hot.
Baking soda has the power to remove impurities from the pores. To do this, you have to mix 4 tablespoons of baking soda with a cup of water. Apply the paste over the black spots let it dry for 10 minutes and rinse well with warm water.
Mix 2 tablespoons ofAlmond powder with a teaspoon of rose water. Apply this facial pimple extract stripping mixture all over the face for 30 minutes and wash.
With the antiseptic properties of tomatoes blackheads tend to dry out quickly. Peel off the tomatoes and crushing. Apply the mixture and leave overnight. Wash with water early in the morning to see clear and clean skin.
Honey and lemon
This natural remedy works well with all individuals suffering from the black spot problem. You have to take a spoonful of honey and add a few drops of lemon in it. Apply the solution on your black head portion. They stay for 20 minutes and then, slowly, scratching with fingernails. There after washing with running water. This should be done several times in order to wash the blackheads completely from your skin.
Oats and olive oil remedy
Oats are very healthy for your body. This health awareness has insisted on most people keeping oats as one of the ingredients of cooking. You can get a wonderful combination of olive oil with oats to remove blackheads. This makes a wonderful scrub. It is necessary to break the oat grains and make it into a small granular variation. Apply this combination over your rings on the nose and gently rub your finger tips against it. This works well in removing blackheads.
Another of the home remedies for skin pimples is rich in Aloe Vera. It is a gel as the substance that can be extracted from your leaf. The length of the leaf should be cut from the middle. Carry out the gel and apply over the area where it has blackheads. This could be very sticky, but it will be very effective. Apply the put to that area in which you have black heads. This provides a great remedy for pimples on the skin. Do this once a day to get a smooth, dull and gentle skin.
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I was thinking about renewing my pot holders, so I’ve taken the opportunity to make a new tutorial.
1- For a 6.2 ” x 6.2 ” pot holder, cut two squares of wadding and two of fabric with this measure (plus a margin in the case of the fabric) and a strip of fabric 3.1 ” x 1.6 ”.
2- Fold the strip of fabric leaving the wrong side out and sew it lengthways. Then turn the inside out with a safety pin.
3- Place, one on top of the other and in this order, both pieces of wadding and the fabrics, matching them by the right side. And between the fabrics, in the corner, place the strip folded in half, as in the photo.
4- Sew together all the capes by the edge leaving an unstitched part to turn the inside out.
5- Before turning the inside out, cut the corners, as in the photo.
Many are sports that enjoy the sympathy of the Cuban sports fans, within these we can find Baseball, Boxing, Athletics, etc. It is also observed that in the last years Canoeing has gained many admirers because it is a sport endowed with complexity in the execution of the technical elements, adding that its competitive activity is carried out in the water, a means alien to the man in its Terrestrial mammalian nature, where the athlete must also develop sensorial capabilities to transmit through the shovel or oar the specific power to achieve the movement of the boat over the water.
The sport of kayak pursues among its didactic elements the formation of athletes in general sense, to cross the competitive distance in a shorter period of time, an important element in the sport of kayak is the development of the motor capacities such as: strength, Resistance, speed, in the athletes, together with this also a fundamental factor for the development of the kayakista and for all sports that have cyclical character must be the technical preparation that has the athlete.
The technical preparation in athletes is a primary factor in the sporting outcome of any sport that has a cyclical character, to achieve this requires an improved technique, ie the most rational and effective way possible to perform the exercise. In the sport of kayaking a sport of cyclical character by a repetition of the motor act, of great power by the degree of intensity that is worked, the technical preparation is a fundamental factor to achieve the best sport results, according to the latest sports results Of the province in the last 10 years has experienced a gradual decline, according to the experience of coaches there are dissatisfactions that have a negative impact on the performance of kayak athletes.
Through different channels such as: review of documents, observations of daily practice, interviews, surveys, participation in national and international competitions, talks with trainers from national and provincial High Performance Training Centers (CEAR), review of reports, Participation in scientific events and other exchanges, it has been possible to detect some inadequacies in the execution of the technical gesture by the athletes, these are materialized in, little fluidity of the technical movements by the athletes, little coordination in the technical movements, Problems At the time of planning the technical training for the lack of documents that refer to the subject, Dissatisfaction in the teaching-learning process due to the scarcity of a document that expresses a methodology for teaching-learning kayak technique, which Brings as a consequence that the existing methodology is based mainly on the empirical work of the coaches, There is no coincidence of criterion on the part of the coaches as to the way to direct the technical preparation in the process of the sport training of the kayak, you can find more technique here seakayakermag.com.
Through the surveys and interviews conducted to the different members of the sport of Canoeing (teachers, managers and athletes) it was possible to detect that the main problem lies in the non-existence of high performance pyramid for the practice of this sport in the province , In the province there is no area for the practice (familiarization) of this sport, which leads to the recruitment of the subjects for the practice of this sport from scratch, which causes more time for technical work than Is established in the PPD.
At present, in the province of Santiago de Cuba, problems have been detected in the technical execution of kayak athletes from the 13-15 year category of the provincial academy of nautical sports that affect their sport performance. We aim to develop a methodology for the teaching of technique in kayak, based on a conception that integrates the methodology and its planning to raise the technical level of the athletes of the category 13-15 years of the Provincial Academy Of Nautical Sports of Santiago de Cuba.
In the work is followed as a guide for the development of the methodological proposal the parameters that appear in the program of preparation of the kayak athlete in terms of the objectives set for the technical preparation in athletes in the category 13-15 years.
The teaching of the technique was divided into 4 phases for teaching-learning with several driving tasks for each phase; The methodological proposal consists of two stages of training in which the technique is worked in its four phases:
Water technique (pot skills and rowing technique).
This proposal is based essentially on two technical stages of training, the technique on land differs to work in water because, technical ground movements are made in walls, benches or pools and not in the boat in the water, but as the movements Technicians made on land are the same ones that are made in water, our methodology is used in the two stages of teaching-learning kayak technique.
For the teaching of ground technique, the duration of the work should not exceed 45 to 60 minutes of work, it should be worked by repetitions trying to keep the athlete out of the way, so he can capture and learn the technical movements more easily And fluency. The repetitions will increase in the way that the athlete is able by the same physical and psychological preparation to increase these repetitions.
On the other hand the technical work in water has as a characteristic that divides in (boat skills and rowing technique), the skills in the boat must be combined with the teaching-learning process of the ground technique to motivate the Athletes in training and when they go to the teaching-learning process of water technique have a domain in the boat that favors both the coach and the athlete in the process of sports training.
During the teaching-learning process, coaches should devote part of the training to skill development with the boat for athletes to become familiar with the kayak:
You should be taught to:
To get on and off the boat
Get up and stay for a while to gain balance in the boat
Row with hands forward and backward
From the sitting position stand in the boat and sit in the boat.
Turn on the boat and teach him how to straighten the boat after turning.
Water technique training in the case of rowing technique should not exceed 35 minutes of continuous work, but two periods of time of 35 minutes can be worked in a single training session, as long as the athletes are Physiologically recovered from the first period of time. Because more time of work would begin to develop a capacity (resistance).
As we mentioned before, the technical movements of the kayak do not vary so much in land as in water, the only thing that differentiates it is the means where they develop, therefore the technique in water as its name says it is done on top of the kayak, realizing the Same methodological steps of the proposal with the difference that when doing it in the kayak must take into account the safety and care of the athlete:
Perform the practice of this sport in known waters and near the shores to avoid accidents and facilitate rescue.
The kayakers will only go down to the water under the supervision of the trainer.
In case of rollover, stay with the boat, do not swim trying to reach drifting equipment.
Methodology for teaching-learning kayak technique in the category 13-15 years
The proposal is broken down into the following aspects:
Fundamental motor tasks and their description of the motor tasks.
Methodological indications for the teaching of each driving task.
Methods for its realization.
Dosage for each driving task (volume, repetitions).
Planning within a teaching program (set load ranges in a load plan, distribute that load in each week that make up the training macrocycle).
As already mentioned, the technique of kayaking is divided into four phases for a better assimilation of the technical movements by parts of the athletes.
Motor tasks per phase
Phase I. Initial or aerial position
1. Sitting position in the kayak
The seated position in the boat: they must sit in the center of gravity of the boat, the trunk must go to an angle of 85º looking for a greater reach to the water, a maximum twisting of the trunk must be achieved as a primordial element of the technique.
2 . Position of arms
An arm should be stretched forward at eye level, the wrist should be straight, with the palm of the hand facing outwards; The other arm should be semi-flexed at a 45º angle, making the wrist reach the height of the ear and the palm of the hand is kept facing downwards, forming two parallel lines, the oar and the water.
Phase II. Attack
From the initial position maintaining a maximum twisting of the trunk, the arm that is advanced attacks the water seeking a maximum amplitude of the movement obtaining that the leaf of the oar enters completely to the water.
The other arm that is semi-rigged to the side makes a small push to the front by outside assisting the arm that attacks.
Phase II. Halon
After the oar is in the water the halon is made back as close as possible to the boat, the wing that is kept stretched until reaching the hip where a small flexion is done, aiding in the twisting of the trunk.
2 . Thrust-halon
The pushing arm makes a full forward movement, leaving the wrist at eye level providing greater effectiveness in the halon.
Phase IV. Removal or release of the oar
Once the halon is finished, keeping the twisting of the trunk and the thrust to the front, the pull consists of the liberal paddle of water supported by the forearm, the same forms an angle of 45º, the palm of the hand down to the Height of the ear and the elbow comes back falling again in the aerial phase or initial position.
Pedal: consists of the knees should be slightly flexed (110º-120º) allowing the flexion work extension without reaching at any time to the full extension of the leg. The knees should not be together but in lines between the hip and the foot without coming into contact with the bands of the boat.
Methodological indications for teaching-learning of each driving task
The performance of the motor tasks must be from the simple to the complex.
You should not move on to another driving task or phase if the athletes do not master the technical moves being taught.
Combinations of the motor tasks or phases will be performed when the athlete has a mastery of all the technical movements of the four phases.
Do not pass on the technique in water if the athletes do not have a mastery of the technical elements taught.
At first it must be held by the bow and stern so that the boat does not move.
The boat must be placed from all angles so that the coach can correct the possible errors of the athletes.
You should work with the loose pot in stretches of 30-50 meters at the sight of the trainer to correct the possible errors of the athletes.
The technical training in water should be done in a circuit of 250m so that the work is more continuous and there is a better learning of the technical movements on the part of the athletes.
For teaching the ground technique the working time should not exceed 45 to 60 minutes of work, you must work by repetitions. The repetitions will increase in the way that the athlete is able by the same physical and psychological preparation to increase these repetitions.
The technical work in water should not exceed 35 minutes of continuous work, must be worked in meters or kilometers.
Dosage for each driving task (Volume, repetitions)
– Phase I Starting position: 4 runs / 6 reps
Micp (C) macp (C)
– Phase II Attack: 6 rounds / 6 reps
Micp (C) macp (C)
– Phase III Halon: 6 runs / 6 reps
Micp (C) macp (C)
– Phase IV Draw: 4 runs / 6 replays
Micp (C) macp (C)
Methods to comply with the proposal
For the teaching-learning process of the ground technique the most practical method is the discontinuous to repetitions (presence of breaks between work, the micropause appears between exercises and macropauses between batches or series).
For the teaching-learning process of the technique in water the most practical method is the variable continuous, invariable and repetitions.
Planning within a macro structure (set load ranges in a load plan, distribute that load in each week that you compose the training macrocycle)
The annual loading plan is the starting point for the elaboration of the training macrocycle, which indicates how the workloads will be distributed by directions in the training macro graph and then distributed in the graphical training microcycle.
For the preparation of the load plan the following methodological aspects must be followed, which are summarized in:
Locate training directions.
Determine the intensity ranges for the development of each training direction.
Determine the volume of sections or batches for the addresses that require it.
Determine the number of sections or batches per address.
Determine the range of number of sessions to work for microcycles throughout the macro for each direction.
Determine the working volume range by addresses in each training session in the macro.
Determine the working volume range for one microcycle per each macro direction
Aspects to consider
Volume per session = volume of stretches or batches X number of stretches or batches.
Volume per micro = number of sessions per micro X volume per session.
The (-) and (+) signs mean the minimum and maximum working ranges to be planned in the loading plan for the development of each training direction.
In this way the load plan becomes the guide to distribute the load in the macrocycle graph by training directions, as well as in each of the training microcycles, the data of the load plan that are used for the elaboration of the Micros are the intensity and volume ranges per session for the workout directions to work.
In this microcycle has been represented the technique in water 3 times (3 sessions of workouts) and the total volume they are of 9 kilometers, in the example it was decided to work the first day 2 km, the second 4 km and the third day of work 3 km that these kilometers per session correspond to the volume per session expressed in the load plan, in which the volume per session was estimated between 1 and 4 kilometers, that means that in no training session in the macro will be worked out of This range. The method to be used will be the variable continuum for the realization of the direction, because it is recommended for being a technical direction that has as characteristic the execution of the work mainly cyclical, where within the work the athlete recovers to continue performing the physical activity, is To say that within the own work the athlete recovers from the physiological point of view. The intensity in its part is in correspondence with the declared ranges in the load plan for the development of this direction of training, that oscillates between low and high by the complexity of the execution.
Bath pictures and the relationship they set in the decoration is becoming more and more popular. If we look closely we can note that they always bring joy. Decorative paintings can fill any space in general.
Bathroom pictures and decoration of pleasant spaces
The bathroom is not exempt from this. In everything referring to bathroom pictures and designs both the paintings and the photos cause a sense of harmony. That’s why today we want to present some ideas for you to include in your bathroom too. At the time of placing one or several tables should be treated by all means where there is consistency throughout the design.
Fresh bath pictures that also maintains a warm image in appearance
So we recommend that when it comes to bathroom tiles and their decoration, the colors should be analyzed well. Adding to the colors even the bath shapes can be significant. Having all this in mind we will guarantee the harmony of our bathroom. The selection of areas to decorate is very varied. The bathroom as a rule is a versatile space for this accessory.
Pictures to decorate some of the walls of this bright contemporary bathroom
However, their placement will depend on the available space. It is common for bathroom design and pictures to place on the toilet . Other spaces are the bath area and the sides of the windows. There are some larger cases that span an entire wall. Some conditions such as the number of tables that are used will depend on style and personal taste.
Design idea that recreates the white color throughout the space and each of the accessories
The balance must be respected throughout the composition so that it is not overloaded. Bath pictures and their combination with the bathtub can give rise to a space of interest. This area can be converted into that necessary focal point in the bathroom products. Both the materials and the number of paintings can make this wall an accent wall. Materials such as wood are in turn a perfect backdrop to place them near the bath.
Elegant selection of various elements with gold finishes in contrast to white
The staggered compositions give an extra interest to the pictures in the decoration. Otherwise the linear forms on the bathtub have a very elegant harmonic effect. Especially if you place those who maintain the same style and size. To achieve a cozy image there is the option and introduce other patterns in the decoration. Moreover they can add the textures used if the wallpaper .
A different way to represent art and bring nature to the bathroom
We will always have the possibility to play with the symmetry and shapes of the pictures. The placement of the picture should protect it from factors such as sunlight. If you are in a place where you receive direct light you can lose your color more quickly. A wall that does not receive direct light will be sufficient to preserve our picture for longer. On the toilet can be placed several boxes one under the other.
Luxury space that also incorporates a fireplace throughout the bathroom design
The positive aspect is that nothing is done overwhelming. So we can integrate in the design a greater variety of sizes. There are different ways of maintaining a certain uniformity. For example with frames and similar colors you can maintain the entire visual balance of the bathroom. The exact measurements can be determined in advance.
Wall design in deep red that highlights other accessories in the environment
Cutting paper of a similar size and placing them on the floor. With some tests we will check the style that we like. As we see in the pictures the pictures look perfect with many styles. A typical example is the bathrooms with nautical style. It is a theme that brings relaxation by the use of soft tonalities and marine accessories.
Mirrors are another very special addition as are the pictures on the walls
Tables with starfish or shells sea would be perfectly in a bath with these features. Remember that the bathroom is one of the rooms that we sometimes leave in a third plane in the matter of decoration. Its possibilities in the use of materials, accessories and styles are just as infinite. Therefore we must exploit them and create that oasis of rest and well-being that we all deserve. Enjoy this collection with several design possibilities.
In The bookkeeper (Editorial Xordica) find what watchword of all books of Jose Luis Melero : his only tour and staff for the least busy history of literature. The bookkeeper is an illustrated showcase where José Luis Melero shows us part of your library and which exhibits many of his passions and loyalties. “It could be said that I have done nothing else in this life than carrying the books. Like a bookkeeper he carries his books of account. I have read them, signed and ordered with precision, I have acarread them from side to side in interminable moves, I have bound them and dressed with decorum to avoid their deterioration and hide their shame, I have written in them – always in pencil, Glosses, opinions or indications for articles that may be published one day, I have placed my ex libris inside their covers so that those who read them in a few years remember that they were mine, and I have watched them in silence, like a good fork Would do with their own, to try to safeguard the secrets they hide. ”
And so we will know how was the bedroom of Perez Galdos and how wearing the cloak Spanish Diego de San José, loneliness that killed the poet Ignacio Ciordia, resentment against Baroja Luis Ruiz Contreras, the sale of the library Canovas del Castillo the unforgivable gossip Alfredo Marqueríe about Antonio Machado, remorse André Gide for having rejected the original Poust of a la recherche du temps perdu , the few copies sold of his books Ramon Gomez de la Serna, the true story of umbrella Of Azorín or the exciting lives of Ivan de Nogales or José Mor de Fuentes. “There are people who spend their lives thinking about the shrews. But sometimes you just have to do it once, at the most inopportune moment, to have tragic consequences. This is what happened to Gaudí on June 7, 1926, when he was to fulfill his daily visit to the church of San Felipe Neri.
And with them, many other characters in the Spanish culture poke its pages: Maria Sanchez Arbós, Alardo Prats, Julio Cejador, Pedro Vindel, Ramon Miquel i Planas or Teodoro Bardaji, who recovered the presence they once had and that the step Of the years made them lose unfairly. “He had the uncharacteristic personality that only the biggest ones have. That’s why he would appear and disappear when one less expected him, said the most grotesque and funny things without caring who was in front listening to them, and was one of the less conventional men I have known. At the same time, as a natural thing that came from within, he was good, tender and affectionate, friend of his friends, Aragonese wherever he was, noble and loyal. All that made him rabidly human, and without those qualities we would have thought that Tome was like some of his characters: crazy and excessive, almost unreal.
José Luis Melero is the author of Read to tell the tale , books war , Life Books , Writers and writings and the bookkeeper . In 2007 he published in limited edition for bibliophiles Cabinet Aragoneses Chosen Books . José Luis Acín prepared two anthologies of stories Aragon: Aragon Tales (1996) and More Aragonese stories (2000). In 1977 he was one of the founders of Rolde of Aragonese Studies and the magazine Rolde , whose editorial board is part since. He was Secretary of address Poems Collection of books of poetry between 1983 and 1986. Columnist Heraldo de Aragon . Read more here Xero bookkeeper sydney cbd.
We offer sanitation and disinfection services for all types of sectors and establishments.
Cleaning in an educational center has to be methodical and thorough. Therefore, from our experience in the sector, we have stipulated specific cleaning protocols for each of them, taking into account both the different areas to be cleaned (classes, dining rooms, courtyards, etc.) and their possible parameters.
And is that, whether a school, a university, a day care or an academy, among others, every school requires specific needs for cleaning, sanitation and disinfection.
Residential and owner communities
We offer all cleaning and maintenance services that a community of neighbors or urbanization may need, adapting our budgets to the demands and characteristics of each case.
We have a highly specialized team, and we use the best machinery and the most effective materials and cleaning products.
Offices and Premises
In Lafuente Serveis Integrals we study the different needs of your establishment and we plan a cleaning service according to them. For example, we adapt to the schedules of your office or local and try to cause the least possible inconvenience to your employees, users and / or clientele.
Our extensive experience and our extensive and varied portfolio of clients endorse us.
With a work program adapted to the characteristics of each entity, we currently lend our cleaning services to the different branches that the main banks and cajas of our country have in Valencia.
We specialize in cleaning and erasing graffiti from walls and crystals, as well as removing graffiti made with lasers. In addition, we have an operational phone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Our teams are highly trained both to offer a top-quality cleaning service, as well as in the field of occupational risk prevention.
Thanks to its professionalism, in Vancouver Integrals we cover all the industrial sectors, studying the needs of each case carefully. In addition, we have the help of the latest technologies in cleaning, sanitation and disinfection.
A window cleaning business is one of the simplest businesses to start with. People who wash windows require very little start up capital. You can start your business with a little more liquid to wash windows and a sponge. However, it takes some time to build a business clientele.
We are specialists in cleanings of work in any kind of building, office, local, industry or private address, among others. Also, we carry out any type of cleaning your installations may need: from cleaning glass to polishing and polishing of floors, to scrubbing with specific machinery or cleaning of garages.
We adapt to each demand, personalizing both our auxiliary services and our budgets. Your satisfaction is the ultimate goal of our work.
Consumers are no longer willing to sacrifice quality and taste by practicality, and manufacturers throughout the industry are beginning to put a greater emphasis on the development of products with excellent taste exhibiting a Color, texture and odor as part of a complete sensory experience. Frying is one of the fastest heat transfer methods available, and the implementation of an optimal frying and processing system can add considerable value to food products.
The selection of the frying equipment depends on many factors, including the product to be processed, the desired quality, the productive performance of the system and the oil management. The implementation of innovative frying systems, incorporating oil filtration mechanisms and smaller tube configurations, makes it possible to manage the oil more efficiently to maximize profitability and improve the performance on the production line.
Maintain product quality
oil is one of the most important ingredients in the lines of food production, and optimization of your life is an essential part of the process to meet different needs, including profitability include, integrity And its quality. When frying breaded or battered products, food grade oil can rapidly degrade due to the separation of the fragile product cover. The remains that remain in the fryer damage the quality of the oil and ultimately compromise the quality of the product in terms of taste, appearance and shelf life.
To maintain the quality of the oil, the residues released from the cut or covered products must be removed through a filtration system. That’s why the most innovative frying technology incorporates continuous filtration systems to help remove particles produced during cooking from the fryer.
In most frying operations, the fatty acid level of the food oil will reach an unacceptable level if the total oil volume of the system can not be renewed in a given time. This alters the cooking efficiency, making it difficult to clean the fryer, with a direct impact on the quality of the oil. The collection of the oil and the supply of new oil are therefore key considerations when it comes to oil management. The filtered oil is mixed with fresh oil and returned to the machine to recover the optimum volume level. Ensuring that the product is cooked using fresh oil helps manufacturers to produce the highest quality products possible.
design processing systems that incorporate integrated controls and tracking solutions makes part inherent efficiency of operations. Throughout the food industry, production lines have become increasingly complex, with more and more components integrated into the same network to increase production. An effective control system is key to ensuring that the production line remains easy to use and that movement between each area is perfect. The readjustment of these control systems for cooking and frying applications, recipes and specific products only increases efficiency even more.
Efficient control systems gather information from the entire line and store it in a central database so that plant managers can monitor any unusual activity, pinpoint their location and react quickly and effectively in the event of an incident. This greater level of control over the production line reduces the risk of interruptions in the production flow.
Controls and integration technology, such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, help improve efficiencies across the production line. In the same way, the motors that drive the conveyor belt can be adjusted completely from a single point to allow greater flexibility in the cooking time and the type of product, and the processors are able to accurately measure the oil levels together With the flow of product. This data can be used to improve transparency along the production line and inform change managers to improve performance.
Increasingly emphasis is on sustainability frying systems that consume oil. Maintaining a low energy consumption is essential to try to achieve a more sustainable process. Green credentials should be aligned with manufacturers’ needs to increase overall production, profitability and quality of finished products.
An efficient design of the heating elements can contribute significantly to reduce the physical footprint of a system without compromising the flow or quality of the product. New fryer designs include smaller tube configurations to increase heat transfer, improve system efficiency by up to 84 percent, and reduce the overall footprint of the machine compared to conventional provisions. Since the amount of pipe determines the total size of the fryer, the less pipe is required the smaller the footprint of the machine. This also improves the oil heating time and reduces energy costs.
Regular maintenance of the system is also important in the food industry to ensure that processes run efficiently, avoiding unscheduled repairs that can lead to serious consequences on line efficiency and profitability plant. Both the design and the material of the frying systems are important factors that can contribute to facilitate maintenance, minimize downtime and thus increase the efficiency of the system, which directly translates into the profitability of the product. Many suppliers offer systems where the main mechanical components, such as drive motors and bearings, are easily accessible and can be removed or replaced by spare parts for total availability, thus achieving minimum downtime and uninterrupted production flow . In addition, the use of stainless steel throughout the fryer ensures a longer life for the components.
Effective management of the oil in frying systems is essential for a profitable line food processing. With an increasingly demanding consumer base, manufacturers must now focus on factors such as oil quality, system sustainability and efficiencies that improve the overall profitability of the production line. Frying systems not only help provide a tasty product with real consumer appeal, but also help facilitate flexible and efficient production lines, maximizing product performance and promoting efficient operations. Visit cocina-espanola.es/freidora-sin-aceite/.
Steam cleaning is a technique that is increasingly booming and among the public are well known results and ease with which is used. If you are thinking of buying a 2017 steam mops you will like this article, because we will analyze its advantages and disadvantages.
It makes perfect sense for these vacuum cleaners to work with water vapor. In the interior the water is heated to more than 90º leaving the vapor under pressure, the greater the vapor pressure the cleaning can be carried out in a deeper way.
Nowadays they have become a great ally of cleaning since it has multiple functions of cleaning since they clean, disinfect, remove the dust, degrease the kitchen …
Advantages of the steam aspirator
Power and health
Devices using pressure steam technology are characterized mainly by their high power, because stains specially embedded in a surface (usually floors, wooden stage floors, dance theatre arts floor, carpets and furniture) can only be removed using this technique. At the same time, the use of water is a guarantee of hygiene and sustainability therefore there is therefore no risk of allergies or poisoning.
Steam cleaning: savings guarantee
Another element that explains the success of steam cleaning machines is the lower cost of maintenance. You also gain in comfort by not having to worry about the characteristics of each product (window cleaners, scrubs …) since the steam can be used on many surfaces.
Very versatile: they can clean different types of surface like crystals, tiles, sanitary, carpets, etc.
Numerous functions: usually most models allow dusting, degreasing, ironing clothes, etc.
Anti-mites: it is able to exterminate bacteria and mites permanently, aspect very beneficial for people with allergies.
Portable model: There is a model of portable steam cleaner that has a smaller size and is very manageable to carry out daily cleaning.
The problem of humidity
Machines using pressure steam technology often remove dirt in a short time. However, this technique requires the user to remove the remaining moisture from furniture or carpets.The steam is still water, so that on contact with the surface to be cleaned appear small puddles that must be removed because the fabrics could be filled with impossible fungus or stains.
Size: The size of some steam cleaners can be very large and can be uncomfortable to perform cleaning.
Slow start-up: it is necessary to carry out water heating and other functions that require some time before you can start cleaning with the steam cleaner.
Changing tank: To operate this vacuum cleaner it is necessary to change the water tank frequently. A single tank of clean water is not enough for the complete cleaning of a room
Every time you start a new diet plan or simply change your diet, there is a chance that your body will react negatively. Usually, these side effects tend to last only a few days, until the body adapts to the changes you’ve made. The side effects of hCG injections are like many other common effects that appear when you start a new diet. Most of these are not dangerous and are only the result of changes in your eating habits and your hormonal levels.
When Dr. Simeons first developed the idea of the hCG diet injection info, he began using injections as a method to administer the hormone to the patient. The reason for the use of this hormone is well documented in his studies, it is done to boost metabolism and suppress appetite of anyone. These changes help the individual burn more calories in less time and not eat when they are not really hungry.
With every hCG injection you receive, there will be some immediate side effects. It is very likely that the area where the injection was inserted hCG weight loss this a little more sensitive, slightly swelling and bruises appear . For those people who are desperate to lose weight, the side effects of the hCG diet mean the small price to pay for losing weight effectively and quickly.
To alleviate some of these side effects, a new way of applying the hormone hCG through oral drops ( Ultra hCG ) is beginning to be used. This new type of supplement was not offered when Dr. Simeons was using the hCG diet with his patients. However, scientists have been able to use the synthetic hormone and convert it into liquid that can be taken orally. This method eliminates the need to inject hCG, a step that caused many people not to try this diet for fear of needles or their side effects.
Side effects associated with the hCG diet can be a bit uncomfortable, but not so much as to quit the diet or not use it as a weight loss solution. The most common effect is headache , believed to occur because of the amount of toxins out of the body. The same can be said about the fatigue and mental fatigue that many people experience once started hCG injections.
Some of the side effects may become more apparent if you try to exercise while following the hCG diet. Exercise is not recommended with this diet because of the low amount of calories you consume each day. Your body needs calories to get energy when you exercise, and this diet does not provide enough for this purpose. Caloric deficiency can manifest with body, nausea and dizziness fatigue .
Usually, most side effects are associated with hCG hormone injections. If you are experiencing any of these effects, it is recommended to try the application through oral drops. This method is as effective as hCG injections and has few negative effects.
We call natural landscape to one that is not modified by society, despite some small enclaves. These are lands that do not belong to the ecumene , the polar regions and some high mountain rainforest. Nowadays this natural space almost does not exist.
A natural landscape.
In the natural environment the individual is at the mercy of natural conditions and their own biology; So try to modify it.
The natural landscape is a journey but not organized space, and low population densities. These are the areas occupied by societies of collectors, hunters and fishermen who have a very intimate and specialized knowledge of the environment. The area needed to procure the resources must be very broad as they depend on what nature offers.
The concept “landscape” has evolved a lot in the course of history. At first it was closely related to artistic expressions, to join in the nineteenth century to the interest aroused by natural areas and their integral study.
According to González Bernáldez (1981) in our days there are two types of meanings of the term:
• The image (perceived, printed, etc.) of a territory
• The set of elements of a territory related to each other, easily delimitable and visible. It is, therefore, a theoretical elaboration on the content of the image
In both cases the image is considered as a whole or through its elements. The components of the landscape are characterized by being clearly manifested, easily observable, thus appearing one of the defining characteristics of the landscape: its perceptibility, not only visual but multisensorial. Thus, Diaz Pineda (1973) defines the landscape as “plurisensorial perception of a system of ecological relations”.
The second type of meaning of the term implies a global and interrelated consideration of all elements, both natural and anthropogenic , that make up the landscape. It is the so-called “integrated landscape theory”, perspective from which definitions appear as:
• Landscape is not the simple sum of separate geographic elements, but is – for a certain spatial surface – the result of dynamic, sometimes unstable combinations of physical, biological and anthropological elements, which dialectically intertwined, make the landscape a A unique body, indivisible, in perpetual evolution “(Bertrand, 1968).
• Landscape is the result of the aggregation of the physical characteristics of the physical environment, of the physical features of the biotic medium plus the physical footprint of the (until a few years ago) slow human transformation “(Gómez Orea, 1985).
Thus, those that, in our view, are characteristic features and defining the concept of “landscape” are included:
• It must be perceived
• It integrates a set of elements, both visible and non visible, of natural and anthropic origin
• It is a dynamic element, in continuous evolution and transformation
The landscape: a dynamic element
The landscape is dynamic.
The landscape is in constant evolution as a consequence of:
• Natural dynamic processes of the biotic environment (evolution of vegetation, colonization, substitution, etc.) and the abiotic environment (erosive or sedimentary processes, changes in river courses, glacial processes, etc.)
• Anthropic processes: breaking, logging, transformation of land uses, installation of infrastructures, etc.
We must consider that man is an element of nature, linked to it by ties of interdependence, making it an integral part of ecosystems. Their role in them is very active, especially in the last centuries, when the technology developed allows interventions on the environment previously impossible, which has increased and accelerated the processes of anthropic transformation of this, and therefore the evolution of landscapes .
Each of the aforementioned media (biotic, abiotic and anthropic) will have different specific weight in each unit of landscape, establishing among them a series of relationships and interdependencies that give unity to the whole and determine its evolution. The evolutionary dynamics of the indicated processes are developed according to very different time scales: there are short cycle dynamics and there are long cycle dynamics:
• In the abiotic environment: landslides, certain transformations in the fluvial environment, falls of blocks, etc.
• In the biotic environment: death of individuals as a result of landslides, fires or fall of other individuals, change in populations due to pests or diseases, etc.
A riverbed tends to stabilize on its own.
Long cycle dynamics often tend to restore the lost equilibrium as a consequence of short cycle dynamics or human intervention. They are, therefore, self-organizing processes that tend to bring the whole to more stable stages:
• In the abiotic environment: regularization of slopes, stabilization of riverbeds, or coasts, etc.
• In the biotic environment: plant colonization, substitutions or changes in plant and animal species as a consequence of climate change, etc.
Anthropogenic interventions often cause short-cycle changes: felling, clearing, changes in land use, fires caused, installation of communication infrastructures, etc. These rapid changes trigger processes of adaptation and reorganization of the natural environment, both biotic and abiotic, in most cases of long cycle: plant recolonization in burned or cut areas, progressive invasion of infrastructure by vegetation and deposited materials, stabilization Of slopes, etc.
Both long-cycle and short-cycle processes of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic interventions strongly interrelate. Thus, for example, a slope (short cycle process of the abiotic environment) can cause a destruction of the vegetation cover (short cycle of the biotic medium) and unleash the processes of colonization (long cycle of the abiotic environment).
Forest fire: short and long term processes.
A forest fire (short-cycle anthropogenic intervention) will cause a series of erosive and soil loss processes (abiotic medium, long cycle) which in turn will influence the rapidity and effectiveness of natural revegetation (biotic medium, long cycle ) That will start after him.
The landscape is, in short, something alive that evolves temporarily as a result of natural processes and anthropic interventions or the cessation of these, as has happened in recent years in large areas of mid-mountain or depressed counties.
Therefore, it should not be considered a static phenomenon that can be locked in a momentary image, but as something in permanent evolution, what has been defined as “landscape metabolism”.
Quality, subjectivity and preferences
The concept of quality of a landscape is related to the greater or less presence of aesthetic values, which is subject to a strong subjectivity. Nevertheless, systematic schemes have been developed to evaluate the quality of a landscape, among them we can mention the one realized by M. Escribano et al. (1987). As proposed, the aesthetic valuation of a landscape includes the valuation of three elements of perception:
• The intrinsic visual quality of the point from which the observation is made. The values are constituted by natural aspects (morphological, vegetation, presence of water, etc.)
Quality of the landscape need more explanation?
• The visual quality of the immediate environment. It evaluates the natural characteristics observed up to a distance of about seven hundred meters, indicating the possibility of observing visually attractive elements
• The quality of the scenic background. It evaluates the quality of the visual background of the landscape considering aspects such as altitude, vegetation, water and geological singularities
The quality of the presence of the elements indicated may be reduced by the presence of negative elements indicating degradation, such as burned surfaces, heavily eroded areas, dirty rivers or lakes, or by the presence of negative visual impact infrastructures such as Urbanizations, gravel, open pit, electric lines, ski trails, etc.
The mentioned systematization to evaluate the quality of a landscape can be useful to establish comparisons, but never to arrive at closed or definitive conclusions, because the subjectivity and the personal experiences determine to a large extent the personal preferences.
Landscapes according to the dominant elements
All landscape is dominated by three types of elements: abiotic , biotic and anthropic . The ratio between them is very diverse. These three elements are interrelated, so that the modification of one affects the rest.
The landscape evolves over time, so its classification may be valid for a while, but not permanently. The landscapes would be classified in:
• Landscapes with practically exclusive predominance of a single group of elements
• Landscapes with dominance of one type of elements over others belonging to other groups
• Landscapes resulting from the combination of three groups of hierarchical elements or similarities of dominance.
A sudden change in the classification of a landscape can be caused by:
• A natural occurrence: a fire, a landslide, a serious flood, the advance and recolonization of the vegetation in a devastated area, etc.
• Human intervention: urbanization, construction of infrastructures, land consolidation, scrapping, reforestation, etc.
Not always an intervention is a landscape pollution . The term pollution is reserved for deep and rapid interventions that cause a serious visual impact and an evident loss of quality of the landscapes. In general, pollution is characterized by the presence of anthropic elements to the detriment of biotic or abiotic species, although it may also mean the introduction of strange biotic elements (repopulations with exotic species) or the removal of singular abiotic elements.
Visual elements of the natural environment
The landscape is, in short, the whole natural environment around the activities of man and other living beings.
Textures and contrast in a landscape.
The basic visual elements
When a person observes their environment, they can perceive most what their vision captures; Therefore, direct reference is made here to the visual elements that the human being is capable of grasping. It can be said that “The landscape understood as a set of territorial units with different properties and characteristics, can be analyzed and defined through the following visual elements”.
According to the classification established by Maria Escribano in their publications of the Ministry of Public Works of Spain (MOPU), the main visual elements are: the shape , the texture , and theline and contrast , and finally the color , as a complement to all of them. The above in a landscape in which the environment is analyzed in detail.
Form : the form of the element or surface. The regular geometric forms are due to anthropic elements, in nature there are more irregular elements.
Texture : they are variations that exist on the surface of the elements of the landscape and are always relative, depending on the distance between observer-landscape, if we are far appear soft and fine textures, go closer to thicken. It has two characteristics, grain and contrast.
Line : When several points are close create the feeling of creating the line direction as an extension of the direction of a point.
Contrast : is the diversity of colors and brightness on the surface (as in tomentosas plant varieties)
Color : The ability of a surface to reflect light.
The color is characterized by:
• Tint: is the amount of color
• Tone: which can be light or dark
• Brightness: matt or glossy colors, also called metallic
In addition to establishing the visual elements that make up the landscape, it is exposed how a landscape is shaped according to the different natural or artificial elements. Several authors call them, for practical purposes, as the Landscape Components and group them into four broad areas:
Caldera cliffs, north coast of Chile, facing the Pacific.
It is possible to observe through this component of the landscape the relief, the textures and the different materials of the terrain, as well as the evolution of the conformation of the terrestrial surface of that environment.
In the tropical coasts of the Pacific there is a great peculiarity as regards the conformation of the beaches. Through several hundred kilometers the relief is quite bumpy. In the cross section we can see an area of wide beach in which immediately afterwards a mountain range extends along the continent of Central and North America.
This component of the landscape has quite a peculiarity since, as is imagined, the presence of this element in the environment is essential for any way of life. It also brings aesthetic elements that revalue the landscape at a high level. When referring to a landscape that is located on the coast, it is feasible also to find numerous rivers and lagoons that are related to the ocean. Consequently, the singularity of the landscape obtained by the existence of bodies of water is considered very important.
It is another vital component in the landscape, since in itself provides great variety in the color and texture within the natural or artificial environment. In the tropical coastal zone of the Pacific exists a great variety of vegetation, that goes from several species of palm trees to other varieties of trees with dense foliage and exuberant mostly of perennial leaves. With this, the vegetation habitat of this environment is formed. There may also be some deciduous trees.
Tropical coastal vegetation in anthropic environment.
Finally, structures or artificial elements are inevitable components in the landscape. Because they are the manifestation of the intervention of the man on his environment, which are represented by buildings of a housing type or multiple uses such as tourist centers, housing or offices, as well as facilities, infrastructures and services That these entail.
What is really important in this analysis is to consider the form, the materials and the constructive systems with which a future intervention will be carried out within a specific landscape, taking into account its typology, with which it is possible to achieve the global integration of the Architecture to the natural environment. Precisely the above will depend on the conservation, improvement or deterioration of the visual and environmental value of the natural landscape.
The visual comfort
The way in which the user communicates with the environment that surrounds him is or may become different. This, if one takes into account the intervisibility with the exterior that surrounds it. The following aspects give a clearer idea of how these relationships with the environment can be.
Within an environment of recreation in which its natural landscape propitiates by itself the relaxation of the visitors, this one plays a primordial paper. If they are analyzed from the landscape point of view the size and position of the windows, which in the particular case are the connection element with the exterior, can determine the visual comfort.
To do this it is necessary to take into consideration three fundamental aspects:
• The first is the Visual Opening, which is the relationship that exists between the user and what he observes towards the outside.
• The Visual Domain, which consists of the specific area that the user is able to observe at a given time, if that element is of interest.
Openness, mastery and visual privacy.
• Finally, there is the Visual Privacy, since having the previous two is necessary to have more or less wide windows or spans, but at the same time it is important to have the possibility to isolate in certain situations of greater privacy that the user requires, Which is achieved by means of blinds, curtains, or what is more interesting, through outside vegetation strategically placed in a way that allows the user to have a view of the landscape, but at the same time prevents pedestrians from having access to the interior views Of the building.
Openness, mastery and visual privacy represent the elements necessary to obtain visual comfort within the landscape. Although some aspects of visual privacy were already mentioned when talking about vegetation, they only dealt with the aspect of the use of vegetation as an element of architectural design.
Once the components of the landscape are established, as well as the study of the different ways of visualizing the environment, it is feasible to make an assessment of the environment that allows a future adequate intervention, that does not impact in a negative way those green elements that, besides being indispensable Enrich the spiritual life.
The natural landscape in painting
The art of landscapes pictorially depicts scenes from nature, such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers and forests. Sky is almost always included in the view, and time is usually an element of composition. Traditionally, the art of landscapes shapes the surface of the earth, but there may be other types of landscapes, such as those inspired by Daniel Tyrrell landscapes dreams. More examples below:
Landscape, by Joachim Patinir.
In Western painting, the landscape was gradually becoming increasingly important, as background pictures of another kind (such as history painting or portrait ) to establish itself as an independent genre in seventeenth – century Holland.
Within the hierarchy of genres , the landscape occupied a very low place, superior only to still life . (A still life, also known as still life, is a painting depicting lifeless objects in a particular space, such as game animals, fruits, flowers, kitchen utensils, tableware or household items, antiques, etc.)
Because of the way in which the theme of the landscape is dealt with, three fundamental types can be distinguished:
1. The “cosmic” or “sublime” landscape, in which wild nature is presented, immense landscapes that do not necessarily represent real places, and in which man feels lost. Within this line would be the “naturalistic landscape” that reflects a grandiose nature, abundant and wild, in which appear atmospheric phenomena like storms. It is typical of the artists of northern Europe, such as Dürer, Elsheimer or Friedrich.
2. Nature “dominated” by man, as in the Flemish or Dutch landscape. The presence of man makes nature not seem threatening. Many times it ends up being a “topographical landscape”, which necessarily represents a precise and identifiable place, with a nature presented in the most humble way. Patinir, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, or Dutch masters of the seventeenth century can be mentioned in this line.
3. Nature “colonized” by man, which is typical of the Italian landscape. There are cultivated fields of relief, hills, valleys and plains with houses, canals, roads and other human constructions; Nature is no longer a threat, but man has also made it his own.
Within this type of landscape one can speak of the “classical landscape”, where an ideal, grandiose nature is represented. The representation is not credible, but recomposed to sublimate nature and present it perfect.
In this type of landscape a story usually hides. It is topical the presence of elements of Roman architecture, combined with a mountain or a hill and with a plane of water. This type of “ideal landscape” was created by Annibale Carracci, followed by Albano, Domenichino and the French Poussin. The Italian landscape was preferred for centuries because it was the place where artists traveled from all over Europe and where they were formed.
From another point of view, referring to the subject that is represented and not so much to the way in which it is treated, it is necessary to differentiate between:
• Marinas in compositions that show oceans, seas or beaches.
• River landscape compositions with rivers or streams.
• Stellar landscapes or cloudy landscapes are representations of clouds, weather formations and atmospheric conditions.
• Lunar landscapes show landscapes of the moon’s vision on earth.
• Cityscapes show cities.
• Hardscape or hard landscapes, in which areas are represented as paved streets and large business complexes or industries.
Marina, by Thomas Moran.
• Aerial or ethereal landscape, showing the land surface seen from above, especially from airplanes or spacecraft. When the point of view is very pronounced down, the sky is not appreciated. This genre can be combined with others, such as the cloudy ethereal art of Georgia O’Keeffe, the ethereal lunar landscape of Nancy Graves or the urban ethereal landscape of Yvone Jacquette.
• A dream landscape, in landscape-like compositions (usually surreal or abstract) that seek to express the psychoanalytic view of the mind as a three-dimensional space.
In the days of the most ancient Chinese paintings in ink, the tradition of “pure” landscapes was established, in which the tiny human figure simply invites the observer to participate in the experience.
From the ancient Egypt some schematic landscape representations are conserved in the tombs of the nobles, engraved in relief during the Old Empire and frescoed in the New Kingdom; Usually frame scenes of hunting or ritual ceremonies.
In Pompeii and Herculaneum Roman frescoes of rooms decorated with landscapes from the 1st century BC have been preserved. C. In Greco-Roman antiquity, the landscape is painted as background or environment to contextualize a main scene.
Mount Sainte-Victoire, by Cezanne.
Contemporary painting has dissolved the existence of genres, but within the different avant-garde “isms” can be distinguished pictures in which the represented is a landscape, always with the style of the author.
Cézanne, the “father of modern painting”, devoted a whole series of paintings to the Sainte-Victoire mountain. Derain, Dufy, Vlaminck, and Marquet painted fauvist landscapes, and Braque, one of the founders of Cubism, repeatedly treated the landscape of L’Estaque.
In the Vienna of the early twentieth century, works of this genre produced both the modernist Gustav Klimt and the expressionist Egon Schiele.