Methodology for teaching-learning kayak technique in athletes of the Provincial Academy of Nautical Sports
Many are sports that enjoy the sympathy of the Cuban sports fans, within these we can find Baseball, Boxing, Athletics, etc. It is also observed that in the last years Canoeing has gained many admirers because it is a sport endowed with complexity in the execution of the technical elements, adding that its competitive activity is carried out in the water, a means alien to the man in its Terrestrial mammalian nature, where the athlete must also develop sensorial capabilities to transmit through the shovel or oar the specific power to achieve the movement of the boat over the water.
The sport of kayak pursues among its didactic elements the formation of athletes in general sense, to cross the competitive distance in a shorter period of time, an important element in the sport of kayak is the development of the motor capacities such as: strength, Resistance, speed, in the athletes, together with this also a fundamental factor for the development of the kayakista and for all sports that have cyclical character must be the technical preparation that has the athlete.
The technical preparation in athletes is a primary factor in the sporting outcome of any sport that has a cyclical character, to achieve this requires an improved technique, ie the most rational and effective way possible to perform the exercise. In the sport of kayaking a sport of cyclical character by a repetition of the motor act, of great power by the degree of intensity that is worked, the technical preparation is a fundamental factor to achieve the best sport results, according to the latest sports results Of the province in the last 10 years has experienced a gradual decline, according to the experience of coaches there are dissatisfactions that have a negative impact on the performance of kayak athletes.
Through different channels such as: review of documents, observations of daily practice, interviews, surveys, participation in national and international competitions, talks with trainers from national and provincial High Performance Training Centers (CEAR), review of reports, Participation in scientific events and other exchanges, it has been possible to detect some inadequacies in the execution of the technical gesture by the athletes, these are materialized in, little fluidity of the technical movements by the athletes, little coordination in the technical movements, Problems At the time of planning the technical training for the lack of documents that refer to the subject, Dissatisfaction in the teaching-learning process due to the scarcity of a document that expresses a methodology for teaching-learning kayak technique, which Brings as a consequence that the existing methodology is based mainly on the empirical work of the coaches, There is no coincidence of criterion on the part of the coaches as to the way to direct the technical preparation in the process of the sport training of the kayak, you can find more technique here seakayakermag.com.
Through the surveys and interviews conducted to the different members of the sport of Canoeing (teachers, managers and athletes) it was possible to detect that the main problem lies in the non-existence of high performance pyramid for the practice of this sport in the province , In the province there is no area for the practice (familiarization) of this sport, which leads to the recruitment of the subjects for the practice of this sport from scratch, which causes more time for technical work than Is established in the PPD.
At present, in the province of Santiago de Cuba, problems have been detected in the technical execution of kayak athletes from the 13-15 year category of the provincial academy of nautical sports that affect their sport performance. We aim to develop a methodology for the teaching of technique in kayak, based on a conception that integrates the methodology and its planning to raise the technical level of the athletes of the category 13-15 years of the Provincial Academy Of Nautical Sports of Santiago de Cuba.
In the work is followed as a guide for the development of the methodological proposal the parameters that appear in the program of preparation of the kayak athlete in terms of the objectives set for the technical preparation in athletes in the category 13-15 years.
The teaching of the technique was divided into 4 phases for teaching-learning with several driving tasks for each phase; The methodological proposal consists of two stages of training in which the technique is worked in its four phases:
This proposal is based essentially on two technical stages of training, the technique on land differs to work in water because, technical ground movements are made in walls, benches or pools and not in the boat in the water, but as the movements Technicians made on land are the same ones that are made in water, our methodology is used in the two stages of teaching-learning kayak technique.
For the teaching of ground technique, the duration of the work should not exceed 45 to 60 minutes of work, it should be worked by repetitions trying to keep the athlete out of the way, so he can capture and learn the technical movements more easily And fluency. The repetitions will increase in the way that the athlete is able by the same physical and psychological preparation to increase these repetitions.
On the other hand the technical work in water has as a characteristic that divides in (boat skills and rowing technique), the skills in the boat must be combined with the teaching-learning process of the ground technique to motivate the Athletes in training and when they go to the teaching-learning process of water technique have a domain in the boat that favors both the coach and the athlete in the process of sports training.
During the teaching-learning process, coaches should devote part of the training to skill development with the boat for athletes to become familiar with the kayak:
You should be taught to:
To get on and off the boat
Get up and stay for a while to gain balance in the boat
Row with hands forward and backward
From the sitting position stand in the boat and sit in the boat.
Turn on the boat and teach him how to straighten the boat after turning.
Water technique training in the case of rowing technique should not exceed 35 minutes of continuous work, but two periods of time of 35 minutes can be worked in a single training session, as long as the athletes are Physiologically recovered from the first period of time. Because more time of work would begin to develop a capacity (resistance).
As we mentioned before, the technical movements of the kayak do not vary so much in land as in water, the only thing that differentiates it is the means where they develop, therefore the technique in water as its name says it is done on top of the kayak, realizing the Same methodological steps of the proposal with the difference that when doing it in the kayak must take into account the safety and care of the athlete:
Perform the practice of this sport in known waters and near the shores to avoid accidents and facilitate rescue.
The kayakers will only go down to the water under the supervision of the trainer.
In case of rollover, stay with the boat, do not swim trying to reach drifting equipment.
Methodology for teaching-learning kayak technique in the category 13-15 years
The proposal is broken down into the following aspects:
Fundamental motor tasks and their description of the motor tasks.
Methodological indications for the teaching of each driving task.
Methods for its realization.
Dosage for each driving task (volume, repetitions).
Planning within a teaching program (set load ranges in a load plan, distribute that load in each week that make up the training macrocycle).
As already mentioned, the technique of kayaking is divided into four phases for a better assimilation of the technical movements by parts of the athletes.
Motor tasks per phase
Phase I. Initial or aerial position
1. Sitting position in the kayak
The seated position in the boat: they must sit in the center of gravity of the boat, the trunk must go to an angle of 85º looking for a greater reach to the water, a maximum twisting of the trunk must be achieved as a primordial element of the technique.
2 . Position of arms
An arm should be stretched forward at eye level, the wrist should be straight, with the palm of the hand facing outwards; The other arm should be semi-flexed at a 45º angle, making the wrist reach the height of the ear and the palm of the hand is kept facing downwards, forming two parallel lines, the oar and the water.
Phase II. Attack
From the initial position maintaining a maximum twisting of the trunk, the arm that is advanced attacks the water seeking a maximum amplitude of the movement obtaining that the leaf of the oar enters completely to the water.
The other arm that is semi-rigged to the side makes a small push to the front by outside assisting the arm that attacks.
Phase II. Halon
After the oar is in the water the halon is made back as close as possible to the boat, the wing that is kept stretched until reaching the hip where a small flexion is done, aiding in the twisting of the trunk.
2 . Thrust-halon
The pushing arm makes a full forward movement, leaving the wrist at eye level providing greater effectiveness in the halon.
Phase IV. Removal or release of the oar
Once the halon is finished, keeping the twisting of the trunk and the thrust to the front, the pull consists of the liberal paddle of water supported by the forearm, the same forms an angle of 45º, the palm of the hand down to the Height of the ear and the elbow comes back falling again in the aerial phase or initial position.
Pedal: consists of the knees should be slightly flexed (110º-120º) allowing the flexion work extension without reaching at any time to the full extension of the leg. The knees should not be together but in lines between the hip and the foot without coming into contact with the bands of the boat.
Methodological indications for teaching-learning of each driving task
The performance of the motor tasks must be from the simple to the complex.
You should not move on to another driving task or phase if the athletes do not master the technical moves being taught.
Combinations of the motor tasks or phases will be performed when the athlete has a mastery of all the technical movements of the four phases.
Do not pass on the technique in water if the athletes do not have a mastery of the technical elements taught.
At first it must be held by the bow and stern so that the boat does not move.
The boat must be placed from all angles so that the coach can correct the possible errors of the athletes.
You should work with the loose pot in stretches of 30-50 meters at the sight of the trainer to correct the possible errors of the athletes.
The technical training in water should be done in a circuit of 250m so that the work is more continuous and there is a better learning of the technical movements on the part of the athletes.
For teaching the ground technique the working time should not exceed 45 to 60 minutes of work, you must work by repetitions. The repetitions will increase in the way that the athlete is able by the same physical and psychological preparation to increase these repetitions.
The technical work in water should not exceed 35 minutes of continuous work, must be worked in meters or kilometers.
Dosage for each driving task (Volume, repetitions)
– Phase I Starting position: 4 runs / 6 reps
Micp (C) macp (C)
– Phase II Attack: 6 rounds / 6 reps
Micp (C) macp (C)
– Phase III Halon: 6 runs / 6 reps
Micp (C) macp (C)
– Phase IV Draw: 4 runs / 6 replays
Micp (C) macp (C)
Methods to comply with the proposal
For the teaching-learning process of the ground technique the most practical method is the discontinuous to repetitions (presence of breaks between work, the micropause appears between exercises and macropauses between batches or series).
For the teaching-learning process of the technique in water the most practical method is the variable continuous, invariable and repetitions.
Planning within a macro structure (set load ranges in a load plan, distribute that load in each week that you compose the training macrocycle)
The annual loading plan is the starting point for the elaboration of the training macrocycle, which indicates how the workloads will be distributed by directions in the training macro graph and then distributed in the graphical training microcycle.
For the preparation of the load plan the following methodological aspects must be followed, which are summarized in:
Locate training directions.
Determine the intensity ranges for the development of each training direction.
Determine the volume of sections or batches for the addresses that require it.
Determine the number of sections or batches per address.
Determine the range of number of sessions to work for microcycles throughout the macro for each direction.
Determine the working volume range by addresses in each training session in the macro.
Determine the working volume range for one microcycle per each macro direction
Aspects to consider
Volume per session = volume of stretches or batches X number of stretches or batches.
Volume per micro = number of sessions per micro X volume per session.
The (-) and (+) signs mean the minimum and maximum working ranges to be planned in the loading plan for the development of each training direction.
In this way the load plan becomes the guide to distribute the load in the macrocycle graph by training directions, as well as in each of the training microcycles, the data of the load plan that are used for the elaboration of the Micros are the intensity and volume ranges per session for the workout directions to work.
In this microcycle has been represented the technique in water 3 times (3 sessions of workouts) and the total volume they are of 9 kilometers, in the example it was decided to work the first day 2 km, the second 4 km and the third day of work 3 km that these kilometers per session correspond to the volume per session expressed in the load plan, in which the volume per session was estimated between 1 and 4 kilometers, that means that in no training session in the macro will be worked out of This range. The method to be used will be the variable continuum for the realization of the direction, because it is recommended for being a technical direction that has as characteristic the execution of the work mainly cyclical, where within the work the athlete recovers to continue performing the physical activity, is To say that within the own work the athlete recovers from the physiological point of view. The intensity in its part is in correspondence with the declared ranges in the load plan for the development of this direction of training, that oscillates between low and high by the complexity of the execution.